officially Republic of India, republic (2005 est pop. A distinctive feature of India has been the existence of big national capital at the different stages of its development into monopoly capital.1,080,264,000), 1,261,810 sq mi (3,268,090 sq km), S Asia. Foreign capital, which has been responsible for approximately 40 percent of the overall investments in industry (particularly jute and mining), tea plantations, and foreign trade, has had a strong position in the economy of India.The southern boundary of the plain lies close to the Yamuna and Ganges rivers, where the broken hills of the Chambal, Betwa, and Son rivers rise to the low plateaus of Malwa in the west and Chota Nagpur in the east. Economic development plans (1950/51–1955/56; 1956/571960/61; 1961/62–1965/66; and 1969/70–1973/74) have provided for growth of capital accumulation and investment, creation of an infrastructure and basic industrial sectors, growth in employment, and expansion of the domestic and foreign markets.
Predominantly an administrative center, it was constructed between 19 to replace Calcutta (now Kolkata) as capital of British India; New..... 3,175,000), capital of Maharashtra state, W central India, occupying c.25 sq mi (65 sq km) on Mumbai (Bombay) and Salsette islands on the Arabian Sea coast. In the north, towering above peninsular India, is the Himalayan mountain wall, where rise the three great rivers of the Indian subcontinent—the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. India’s share in world industrial production is small, amounting to 1.3 percent (1967).
The Gangetic alluvial plain, which has much of India's arable land, lies between the Himalayas and the dissected plateau occupying most of peninsular India. From 1950 to 1969 industrial production has increased by 2.6 times (the capacity of electric power stations by 10 times) and agricultural production by 1.6 times.
The triangular plateau, scarped by the mountains of the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats, is drained by the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers; they break through the Eastern Ghats and, flowing east into the Bay of Bengal, form broad deltas on the wide Coromandel Coast. From 1955/56 to 1966/67 the share of the state sector in the mining industry increased from 10 to 30 percent, and in factory processing from 2 to 25 percent.
Further north, the Mahanadi River drains India into the Bay of Bengal. The state had monopoly control or a predominant position in the following areas: railroad and aviation transport; communications; defense and nuclear industry; gold mining; manufacture of railroad passenger cars, diesel and electric locomotives, and telegraph and telephone equipment; shipbuilding; and life insurance.
The much narrower western coast of peninsular India, comprising chiefly the Malabar Coast and the fertile Gujarat plain, bends around the Gulf of Khambat in the north to the Kathiawar and Kachchh peninsulas. By the end of the 1960’s the state sector accounted for 70 percent of the capacities of electric power stations, 75 percent of the oil extraction, 54 percent of the smelting of steel, more than 80 percent of the production of nitrate fertilizers, 43 percent of the production of petroleum products, 50 percent of the machine tools, 22 percent of the extraction of coal, and 20 percent of merchant marine tonnage.
The coastal plains of peninsular India have a tropical, humid climate. Approximately 70 percent of all imports are made through state organizations, but the share of the state in exports is still insignificant.