After two centuries of Persian rule, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great attacked and burned Tyre, the most prominent Phoenician city.Throughout the subsequent centuries leading up to recent times, the country became part of numerous succeeding empires, among them Egyptian Empire, Persian, Assyrian, Hellenistic, Roman, Eastern Roman, Arab (Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid), Seljuk, Mamluk, the Crusader's state of County of Tripoli founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse that encompassed most of present day Lebanon, and the Ottoman Empire. Recent investigations show that should the diaspora return to Lebanon, it would be the only majority Christian country in the middle east, as the diaspora population is over 70% Christian.Over the past 60 years, there has been a steady decline in the ratio of Christians to Muslims, due to higher emigration rates of Christians, and a higher birth rate in the Muslim population.
Their most famous colonies were Carthage in today’s Tunisia and Cadiz in today’s Spain.The Phoenicians are best known as the inventors of the alphabet, among many other things.The cedar in the center of the Lebanese flag is the symbol of six thousand years of history: the cedar was Lebanon's chief export in ancient times.The location of the cedar tree in the middle of the flag touching the upper and lower red stripes is also a reminder of Lebanon's constant troubles because the red stripes represent the blood spilt by the Lebanese throughout their history.
will serve to equip the candidates who do not speak (Lebanese) Arabic at all with a few transliterated words, phrases, and sentences that they might need to express themselves in Lebanese Arabic when in Lebanon.Occurrences of the name have been found in different texts from the library of Ebla, which date to the third millennium BC, nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh (perhaps as early as 2100 BC). It is believed that it is because of the snow covered Mount Lebanon (in Arabic Jabal Lubnan) which extends across the country. Lebanon could have no more fitting symbol of its tumultuous history than its national flag: emblazoned with a green cedar tree against a white background, framed between two red bands, an official account states the white represents peace, the red, the blood that has been spilled in the name of liberation and the tree, survival.